Basics of Design

The four main things to consider when designing are...

Contrast- To set in opposition in order to show or emphasize differences. Use with Size, Weight, Structure, Form, Direction, Color.

Repetition - The act or process or an instance of repeating or being repeated.

Alignment - Arrangement or position in a straight line or in parallel lines.

Proximity - The property of being close together.

Principles of Design

The principles of design are applicable to all design disciplines including - but not exclusive to - architecture, art, graphics, fashion, industrial design, and web design. The principles of design are tools used to format the elements of design (listed below).

- The elements of design converge to create a design or arrangement of parts that appear to be a whole with equilibrium.

- Similar parts expressed in similar ways. Includes aesthetic consistency, functional consistency, internal consistency and external consistency. The absence of contrast is concordance.

- The "automatic principle." Whenever an element is placed within a format, contrast is created in the various elements. Can be emphasized with contrast in size, shape, color, texture. Offers variety within a visual format.

- Utilizing movement to create the visual illusion of displacement.

- An principle operating on the "slim." Can also be considered "precise," or "simplistic." Or, it can be considered great design.

- Also known as dominance. This condition exists when an element or elements within a visual format contain a hierarchy of visual importance.

- A two- or three-dimensional element defined by other elements of design.

- A recurrence or repetition of one or more elements within a visual format, creating harmony.

- "Oneness" and "Harmony." The condition of completeness with the use of all visual elements within a format.

White Space - The space on a page not occupied by text or graphics.

Elements of Design

The elements of design create every object around us. Nothing can exist without these ingredients. The discipline of learning the power of these elements and formatting them within the principles of design is the responsibility of the designer.

- Used to attract attention, indicate meaning or enhance aesthetics. Saturated colors are pure hues.

- Adds organization or ornamentation. The variables of line are: size, shape, position, direction, number, interval and density.

- Also known as motion. This element portrays the act or process of changing place or direction, orientation, and/or position through the visual illustration of starting or stopping points, blurring of action, etc.

Shape - Any element that is used to give or determine form.

- A two- or three-dimensional element defined by other elements of design.

- A technique used in two-dimensional design to replicate three-dimensional surfaces through various drawing and media techniques.

- Also known as typography, and it is considered an element in graphic design. Although it consists of elements of design, it is - in itself - often an element in the form of visual communication.

- Another word for the lightness or darkness of an area. Brightness measured in relationship to a graded scale from white to black.